"Fair treatment through the consequences mechanism begins by the leader
having a complete understanding of the workplace rules, norms and goals. First,
in order to make sound judgments about the actions of your followers as they
relate to the rules, you must have an understanding of the expectations.
Secondly, a good leader models the workplace expectations. Followers will
immediately perceive that it is unfair if you enforce workplace arrival times
while being late yourself. Understanding expectations and modeling them creates
a positive environment for your followers. It demonstrates that you are fair."
Andrew J. Harvey and Raymond E. Foster (Leadership: Texas Hold 'em
Downloads, Checklists and
Performance Improvement By Incentives (PIBI) Model
Know How to Lead: Lesson 5 Motivation
Matching Needs to Task
Motivation Theory (Games and Exercises)
Articles on Hawthorne and
Articles on Motivation
The Hawthorne defect: Persistence of a flawed theory
Most students of social psych are familiar with, or had better be if they
want to pass. For decades, countless textbooks, Ph.D. theses, journal articles,
and learned panels have cited it as a possible explanation for everything from
why juvenile criminals in experimental program decide to go straight to why
insomniacs sleep better in the laboratory. Whenever psychologists gather, one I
apt to hear mention of the Hawthorne effect-even though, as it happens, the
effect was never actually demonstrated by the original study.
The Hawthorne Experiments: Management Takes A New Direction
General Electric, the major manufacturer of light bulbs, had preliminary
evidence that better lighting of the work place improved worker productivity,
but wanted to validate these findings to sell more light bulbs, especially to
businesses. GE funded the National Research Council (NRC) of the National
Academy of Sciences to conduct an impartial study. AT&T's Western Electric
Hawthorne plant located in Cicero, Illinois, was chosen as the laboratory.
Beginning with this early test, the Hawthorne Experiments were a series of
studies into worker productivity performed at the Cicero plant beginning in 1924
and ceasing in 1932.
The Multiple Lessons of the Hawthorne Experiments
In 1924, MIT professor Vannevar Bush began a series of experiments at the
Western Electric Hawthorne Works, in Cicero, IL. He wanted to test the impact of
specific changes in the work environment on the output of the workers. The
first study was the Illumination Study. Researchers turned up the lights.
Productivity went up. "Aha!" thought the researchers. They turned down the
lights. Productivity went up.
For centuries, commanders and military thinkers have reflected on the factors
that contribute to motivation and morale during combat. in 401 BC, Xenophon
alluded to the force of the soul to convince the Greeks to withstand the enemy
during a campaign in Asia. At about the same time in china, sun Tzu noted the
importance of moral law in his teachings on the art of war. the Romans
remarked on the importance of moral and motivational aspects in war and focused
on them when they organized their legions. More recently, in the 19th century,
Carl Von Clausewitz categorically affirmed that the effects of a victory cannot
in any way be explained without taking moral impressions into consideration.
Employee Motivation: Theory and Practice
The Job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees.
To do this the manager should be able to motivate employees. But that's
easier said than done! Motivation practice and theory are difficult
subjects, touch on several disciplines. In spite of enourmous research,
basic as well as applied, the subject of motivation is not cleaerly understood
and more often than not poorly practiced.
The Magic of Learner Motivation: The ARCS Model
Motivation is the most overlooked aspect of instructional strategy, and perhaps
the most critical element needed for employee-learners. Even the most elegantly
designed training program will fail if the students are not motivated to learn.
Without a desire to learn on the part of the student, retention is unlikely.
Many students in a corporate setting who are forced to complete training
programs are motivated only to "pass the test." Designers must strive to create
a deeper motivation in learners for them to learn new skills and transfer those
skills back into the work environment.
Motivation Through Competition?
Americans historically have enjoyed taking part in all kinds of competition.
Occupations and recreational activities routinely are based on trying to exceed
a standard or beat out competitors. The free market system depends on
competition to improve products and lower prices. Competition is prevalent
in basic childhood activities such as tossing a ball (hand-eye coordination) or
learning to spell. As children mature, they must compete with siblings, fellow
students, and others for opportunities to play on the school team, enter
college, or even date desirable people. Long ago, military leaders found they
could motivate their soldiers to achieve higher levels of performance or
endurance if a competitive environment was established and the winner rewarded.
Click here to suggest a leadership article on motivation.
The Hawthorne Effect
Motivation and Incentives
Motivation and Leadership
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